Home  >  Industry News

Difference between Stainless Steel and Duplex Stainless Steel

Jun. 16, 2022

What is the difference between stainless steel and duplex stainless steel?

Stainless steels encompass several classes of alloys on the basis of their crystalline microstructure. One such classification is the duplex variety. The four main classes of stainless steel include austenitic, ferritic, martensitic as well as a duplex. While austenitic stainless steels have an FCC microstructure, ferritic classes have a BCC structure, martensitic has a body-centered tetragonal form crystalline microstructure. On the other hand, the microstructure of a duplex stainless steel alloy includes both austenite and ferrite in a 50% ratio, which is what gives these steels their unique mechanical and corrosion resistance properties.


Difference between Stainless Steel and Duplex Stainless Steel


Physical properties of Duplex and Stainless Steel

GRADES
TEMPERATUREYOUNG'S MODULUSTHERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENTSPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITYTHERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
CFGPA10−6K1J KG−1 K−1WM−1 K−1
FerriticA516*206820512.545060
S4300020682051048022
S4470020682051048021
AusleniticS3040020682051652016
N0890420682051654415
DuplexS31803206820047014

1002121901350015

2003921801453017

30057217014.556018
S3230420682001347016
SuperduplexS3275020682001347014
S32760206819012.848212.9
S32520206820513.545017

1002121951450018

20039218514.553019

A516*= carbon steel


Chemical composition of Duplex stainless steel grades

EUROPE ENBRITISH BSAISIDINSSTYPICAL COMPOSITION (%)
CCRNIMOOTHER
1.4362

X2CrNiN23-423270.03 ×2240.40.4 Cu
1.4410


23280.03 ×2463
1.4460
329X4CrNiMoN27-5-223240.05 ×2551.5
1.4462

X2CrNiMoN22-5-323770.03 ×2253
1.4501318S13


0.03 ×24630.5 W
1.4507



0.03 ×24631.0 Cu


Duplex Steel Grades

DUPLEX TYPEPREN
StandardApproximately 35
Lean25-30
DuplexAbove 40


Advantages and disadvantages of duplex and stainless steel

Since there are multiple grades of duplex and stainless steel grades, the advantages, and disadvantages associated with each grade are dependent on the application it is to be used for along with the chemical composition of the grade. For instance, austenitic stainless steel grades belonging to the 300 series have excellent ductility, improved resistance to corrosion, and good mechanical strength. Their chemistry could be altered by lowering or increasing the content of carbon for specific purposes such as welding or use in elevated temperatures. Those stainless steels belonging to the martensitic and ferritic classes have better hardness, and the corrosion resistance properties are lower in comparison to austenitic and the duplex variety of stainless steels. Because duplex stainless steels are highly alloyed, the cost of using these metals may be high. However, the cost of grades like 904L is higher than some standard duplex stainless steels. Aside from the cost factor, there are very few stainless steel alloys that could be used at elevated temperatures, unlike nickel alloys such as Monel, Inconel, etc. Another disadvantage of these alloys is their impact resistance, which is not very good at temperatures as low as -50°C.


Difference between Stainless Steel and Duplex Stainless Steel

 

Duplex Steel weldability

● Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)

● Flux-cored arc welding (FCW)

● Gas metal arc welding MIG (GMAW)

● Gas tungsten arc welding TIG (GTAW)

● Submerged arc welding (SAW)

● Plasma arc welding (PAW)

● Resistance welding

● Laser welding

● High-frequence welding

 

Pickling and passivation of duplex and stainless steel

Passivation is a phenomenon that occurs in stainless steels that contain higher contents of chromium in their alloy. Duplex steels have chromium ranging between 19% to about 32% in their alloys. Since duplex stainless steels contain high levels of chromium in their alloy, it is possible for the surface of these components to form a passivated oxide layer over the surface of the steel. However, some stainless steel alloys possess insufficient chromium content to form this self-repairing passivation oxide layer, leading to the material getting corroded by oxidation. Oxidation is a common problem associated with low chromium stainless steel. It is possible to improve the corrosion resistance properties of these stainless steel alloys by subjecting them to a passivation treatment.

Pickling is the elimination of scales caused by exposing the material to elevated temperatures. Scales that were also caused by an adjacent chromium layer of metal could be eliminated by pickling by means of chemical treatments from the external body of stainless steel alloys. The use of mechanical processes often harms or damages the surface of the metal. To avoid such injurious defects, it is easier to eliminate the excess metals via the use of chemical washes, as they effectively eliminate the extra layer from the surface of stainless steel. This process makes use of acidic solutions including nitric (HNO3) and hydrofluoric (HF) acids

 

Galvanic corrosion between stainless steel and duplex stainless steel

bimetallic corrosion, or otherwise known as galvanic corrosion is an electrochemical process that occurs when two dissimilar metals are submerged in a conductive solution and the metals are electrically connected. In this process, while one metal is protected, the other one gets corroded. It is possible to prevent galvanic corrosion by practicing several rules. Materials with similar corrosion potentials must be selected, the electrical connection must be broken down, by means of insulation, and lastly, the application of a coating to both the materials. The application of proper coating prevents the stripping of metals from either the cathode or anode, thereby improving their resistance to corrosion and effectively protecting both the metals.


Difference between Stainless Steel and Duplex Stainless Steel

 

4 Types of Stainless steel

● Ferritic

● Austenitic

● Martensitic

● and Duplex Steel

 

Ferritic Stainless Steel:

● Grade 409

● Grade 416

● Grade 430

● Grade 439

 

Austenitic Stainless Steel:

● Grade 303

● Grade 304

● Grade 304L

● Grade 309

● Grade 316

● Grade 316L

 

Martensitic Stainless Steel:

● Grade 410

● Grade 440C

 

Precipitation Hardened Stainless Steel:

● 17-4 PH

● 15-5 PH

 

Duplex stainless Steel:

● 2205: Heat exchangers and pressure vessels

● 2507: Pressure vessels and desalination plants

 

Contact Us
  • QQ: 2228721936
  • Skype: lingmai-2005
  • Tel.: +86 757 8383 6678
  • Fax: +86 757 8383 8678
  • E-mail: carson@klsfh.com
  • Mob.: +86 158 1691 5404
  • WhatsApp: +86 158 1691 5404
  • Add.: No.30-33, 2/F, Block 5, Lanshi (International) Matel Trade Center, Chancheng District, Foshan City, Guangdong Province, China.
follow us